Draft 1

Mai Kashiwase

E180C015

What is the effective way to learn English vocabulary?

1  Introduction

The purpose of my research is to gain knowledge about what effective ways there are on  learning English vocabulary and use those ways in my life. Why I decided to research about my topic is concerned with my part-time job, a teacher of clam school. There are many students who are not good at memorizing English words. Therefore, I want to help them to use effective ways to learn English words. Moreover, I want to be an English teacher and tell students the effective way to memorize English words and use those ways in my class in the future. My research will be useful for my part-time job and my future dream. That’s why my research topic is significant for me.

2  Current situation of learning English vocabulary

 2-1 the importance of learn English vocabulary

The new ministry’s curriculum guidelines says the goal for junior high school students is to develop the English communication ability. Though it focuses on the communication, students has to store English vocabulary to tell someone their thought clearly. Thus, it is important to learn English vocabulary for students.

2-2 usual effective learning methods

2-3 three types of memorizing English words

There are three memorization types of English vocabulary; visual type, audile type, and, motile and haptic type (Nakazato. Y, 2014). Visual type person learns English vocabulary only to look them and their meanings with a word list. Audile type is the merger of visual type and audile type or audile perception supports visual perception. Learners look English vocabulary and utter their pronunciation. In motile and haptic type, learner do role-play like shopping, conversation on telephone, guiding ways. They learn English vocabulary by using English and tools on experiential situations.

3. Research Question

 What is the effective way to learn English vocabulary?

4. What is the effective way to learn English vocabulary?

First point is that association concerning English words is helpful to learn English vocabulary.  There are three ways of association. First, the phonetic connection between English and students’ mother tongues. When the learners find phonetic associations in their mother tongues, they would remind them of the meanings and forms of the words in foreign languages ( Ebubekur B. 2017). Moreover, the ability of reading aloud spelling correctly helps student write the correct spelling and acquire English vocabulary (Aoki. A, 2012). Second, it is necessary to learn word pairs, the underlying meaning of a word, and word families instead of words. Then, students will associate their mother tongues or each English words. For example, Self-developed mobile-apps followed by phonetic symbol, word class, and a simple Chinese definition which were presented with pictures and audio files at the same time based on the studies of Ellis(1995), Nation, (1982), and Groot(2000). The participants who learned English vocabulary with mobile apps got higher scores in post-test compared with pre-test. The experimental group’s average scores changed from 153.11 to 289.09 and the control group’s average scores changed from 160.20 to 248.44. In addition, EFL students use dictionaries in their mother tongue to know the definition of English words. Words are not stored in mental lexicon permanently(Ebubekur B, 2017 and Tanaka H, Yonesaka S, Ueno Y, Ohnishi A, 2015). Learners associate not only main meanings but another meanings of words (Ebubekur B, 2017) and e-portfolio allows learners to record and save the target words they encounter online and suggested that learners recognize their metacognitive (Tanaka H, Yonesaka S, Ueno Y, Ohnishi A, 2015).

Third point is that using tools and semantic mapping are useful to memorize English vocabulary. When teachers show new words in their classes, using tools like REALIA, pictures, figures, and motions support students to remember English words effectively(Aoki. A, 2012). Semantic mapping means when teachers show a keyword indicating the text, students will list every words which they associated.

5. Conclusion

However, Japanese has no corresponding phonetic sounds with English.

6. Reference

・Ebubekir B.(2017). Effect of Phonetic Association on Learning Vocabulary in Foreign Language.Journal of Education and Training Studies. 5(1), 35-41. doi:10.11114/jets.v5i1.1968

・Haifa H. Alghamdi(2018). Exploring Second Language Vocabulary Learning in ESL Classes. English Language Teaching. 12(1), 78-84. doi: 10.5539/elt.

・Xingxing Ma, Butsakorn Yodkamlue. 2019. The Effects of Using a Self-developed Mobile App on Vocabulary Learning and Retention among EFL Learners. Language Teaching and Learning in Thailand. 58, 166-205.

・Tanaka Hiroya, Yonesaka Suzanne M, Ueno Yukie. An E-Portfolio to Enhance Sustainable Vocabulary Learning in English. Portfolios, Educational technology. 23(1), 41-52.

・Aki Aoki. (2012). Frontier of English Education

Outline

1. Introduction

 1-1 Purpose of my research

 1-2 Significance of my research

2. Current situation of learning English vocabulary

 2-1 What is the difficulty of learn English vocabulary?

 2-2 What type of learning English vocabulary are there now?

 2-3 Current situation of learning English vocabulary in junior high school

 2-4 Current situation of learning English vocabulary in high school

3. Research Question

 How more effective can students learn English vocabulary?

4. Findings

 4-1 Major findings

 4-2 Suggestion(practical approach)

5. Conclusion

 5-1 Summary of my research paper

 5-2 Further research

6. Reference

Synthesis of five articles

My research question is what the most effective way of learning English vocabulary in the junior high school. I found three common issues by reading five articles. All articles mention or imply that the vocabulary is important in language learning because people learn language based on their vocabulary and it is necessary as premises.  

              The first common issue is that association concerning English words is helpful to learn English vocabulary. Ebubekur B. (2017) investigated the effect of phonetic association and said “ the learners find associations in their mother tongues that would remind them of the meanings and forms of the words in foreign languages.” Not only phonetic association, he considers that it is necessary to learn word pairs, the underlying meaning of a word, and word families instead of words. Then, students will associate their mother tongues or each English words. Xingxing Ma and Butsakorn Yodkamlue(2019)who study the effects of a self-developed mobile app on the vocabulary learning and retention designed mobile-apps followed by phonetic symbol, word class, and a simple Chinese definition which were presented with pictures and audio files at the same time based on the studies of Ellis(1995), Nation, (1982), and Groot(2000). In addition, in Haifa H. Alghamdi(2018)’s article, EFL students use dictionaries on their mother tongue to know the definition of English words. From these mentions, it is important to associate English words with learner’s mother tongue, each English words, or images of them.

              Second, words are not stored in mental lexicon permanently from Ebubekur B. (2017) and Hiroya Tanaka, Suzanne M. Yonesaka, Yukie Ueno, Akio Ohnishi(2015). Therefore, Ebubekur suggests that learners associate not only main meanings but another meanings of words and Hiroya Tanaka, Suzanne M. Yonesaka, Yukie Ueno, and Akio Ohnishi studied about e-portfolio which an e-portfolio system that allows learners to record and save the target words they encounter online and suggested that learners recognize their metacognitive.           

Third, the vocabulary depth relates the ability of using language. Sarut Supasiraprapa(2019) says “the most common conceptualization is vocabulary depth as the degree to which L2 words are linked to related words in the mental lexicon, or L2 speakers’ ability to link an L2 word to and distinguish it from related words.” This article focused on the differences of the vocabulary depth between learners in the ESL environment and in the EFL environment. It is clear that learners who was in the ESL environment have deeper vocabulary depth, thus they perform well in language learning. Also, Tanaka, Suzanne M. Yonesaka, Yukie Ueno, and Akio Ohnishi say “learners need to know various aspects of words, or depth of vocabulary, in order to be able to use the language effectively.” Therefore, the vocabulary depth affects when English learners take tests or other performances.

Annotated Bibliograpy5


1. Reference
Sarut Supasiraprapa, The Effect of Learning Environments on Thai Speakers’ English L2 Vocabulary Depth, Journal of Language Teaching and Learning in Thailand, 58. 102-132
 
2. Summary
 This article mentions about the effect of learning environments on Thai speakers’ English L2 vocabulary depth. There are two main types in L2 learning: naturalistic second language learning and foreign language learning. The author saidL2 vocabulary depth increases as a result of living in an ESL environment(Supasiraprapa, 2019). As a result of the study, the students who were in the ESL environment got deeper vocabulary than the students who are in the EFL environment.
 
3. Asessmsnt
 I think that this article can be used in my research in a part of the article. For example, I can mention if want to increase English vocabular, you should go abroad in English speaking countries. However, I will not use other parts of this article because the author investigated which environment is it better to increase the vocabulary, the ESL environment or the EFL environment.
 
4. Reflection
 This article reveals that the effect of learning environments on Thai speakers’ English L2 vocabulary depth. The result of this study in Thailand can replace Japanese students because English is not usually spoken in Japan. However, in that point, there is the difference in Thailand. Thailand is the ESL country. Therefore, I think that I cannot consider all data is applied to Japanese students.

Annotated Bibliography 4

1. Reference
Tanaka Hiroya, Yonesaka Suzanne M, Ueno Yukie. An E-Portfolio to Enhance Sustainable Vocabulary Learning in English. Portfolios, Educational technology. 23(1), 41-52.
 
2. Summary
 This article says that the effect of e-portfolio to enhance sustainable English vocabulary learning in Japanese EFL students. The most promising way to learn English vocabulary for everyone is using metacognitive strategy. Then researchers developed Lexinote, a web based portfolio and uses word family, to enhance the metacognitive and promote independent and continuous learning. Lexinote helps learners visualize the words they meet and there is the benefit for learners and teachers to monitor and control learning.
 
3. Asessment
  It is important for me to write my research paper because this article was written by Japanese and concerned with Japanese EFL learners in learning English vocabulary. This article also mention about the electric device, e-portfolio, like the former article I read.  I got the evidence about Japanese students. However, I have not found any article about the primitive way to learn English vocabulary. I want to connect the information both of ways. Recent years, the electric device like iphone or tablets are focused on in study, however, I think learners need hand writing or reading aloud.  I have to research the effect of these ways to learn English vocabulary.
 
4. Reflection
 This article says the effect of Lexinote, e-portfolio, and it is helpful not only learners but also teachers because they can see the words that learners study and teachers can advise them what to do. This evidence will be used in my research paper. This article is precious because it mentioned about Japanese EFL students.

Annotated Bibliography 3

1. Reference
Xingxing Ma, Butsakorn Yodkamlue. 2019. The Effects of Using a Self-developed Mobile App on Vocabulary Learning and Retention among EFL Learners. Language Teaching and Learning in Thailand. 58, 166-205.

2. Summary
 Two experimenter research the effect of a Self-development Mobile App in Chinese students. The experimental group and the control group also became more successful between pre-test and post-test. However, the experimental group achieved many more words by using Apps. Moreover, the experimental group had great retention compared with the control group. Almost all of the students had positive attitude toward mobile apps.
 
3. Asessment
 I think that this article is important for my research because it reveals the effect of the App to learn English vocabulary. I can know how to research the students, the design of self-development mobile App and how the students achieve the words test by using Apps. This information is very useful to me. However, this research focused on Chinese students. Chinese and Japanese have different language system, thus, I think there are some differences to acquire vocabulary between Chinese students and Japanese ones. I wonder I can use this information as it is.
 
4. Reflection
 This article says that the Chinese students achieved many more words by using mobile Apps and the experimental group of them had great retention of English words compared with the control group. I hope that I will find the same contents’ article concerning Japanese students. Then, the results of the effect of mobile Apps will be more reliable to write my research paper. If I can’t find any article, I will be able to use this.

Annotated Bibliography 2

1. Reference
 Haifa H. Alghamdi(2018). Exploring Second Language Vocabulary Learning in ESL Classes. English Language Teaching. 12(1), 78-84. doi: 10.5539/elt.
  
 2. Summary
 Author researched how foreign language learners learn vocabulary in an ESL classroom. The purpose of this research is to know how ESL students learn English vocabulary and what is their favorite ways to learn English vocabulary. Author did the research whose participants were eleven international students including from Japan. This study were conducted in the advanced ESL reading class and author observed the class. After the class, he give students questionnaires. In the class, first, the students read the column and do word matching exercise. The teacher was trying to provide hints to help the students memorize better. Next is the photograph exercise and the paraphrasing exercise. In the questionnaire, the students asked how you learn vocabulary. The result from the questionnaire shows that the students learn vocabulary not only during the class but also outside the class. The most favorable way to learn English is to work with some students in the group. 
  
 3. Assesment
 This article will be used in my research. It revealed that how the students learned vocabulary and how to learn them. However, this study was a little unclear. Therefore I want to know more information and find other article.
  
 4. Reflection
 This article says that how the ESL students learn vocabulary and what their favorite ways are. Author observed the class, but there is no question about the ways which students learn vocabulary in their lives. I need more evidence which mentions how the students learn vocabulary on their own study. 

Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography

1.Reference

Ebubekir B.(2017)

Effect of Phonetic Association on Learning Vocabulary in Foreign Language

Journal of Education and Training Studies, v5 n1 p35-41 Jan 2017

doi:10.11114/jets.v5i1.1968

2.Summary

 This paper reveals effect of phonetic association on learning vocabulary between English and Turkish. The study is to determine the efficiency of teaching vocabulary from learning speed and retention perspective through means of phonetic association. In Turkey, some activities on phonetics and vocabulary, but it was insufficient. So, author thinks there is the connection between English and Turkish in phonetic association. He thinks learners should have images of each English words concerning Turkish words which pronunciation is the same as English.

In result, students become successful in their test because they can learn vocabulary faster and more retentively. The author suggested that they find associations in their mother tongues that would remind them of the meanings and forms of the words in foreign languages

3.Assesment

 This article may be useful for my research. It shows the connection between learning vocabulary and phonetic association. I did not focus on phonetic association because Japanese  is totally different from English sounds. However, I think to have images of English words is effective. The goal of this article is the method of phonetic association will be extend to the advanced level. In current situation, this methods is useful for beginner or elementary school students.

4. Reflection

 This article mentioned the relation between English and Turkish. There are the same pronunciation words, however in Japanese there is no words like English words. Therefore, I will be able to use the parts of this article. In addition, I have to research there are some papers about phonetic association between English and Japanese and for Japanese students the method to have images of each English words is effective.

Annotated Bibliography

 1.Reference
 Ebubekir B.(2017). Effect of Phonetic Association on Learning Vocabulary in Foreign Language.Journal of Education and Training Studies. 5(1), 35-41. doi:10.11114/jets.v5i1.1968
  
 2.Summary
  This paper reveals effect of phonetic association on learning vocabulary between English and Turkish. The study is to determine the efficiency of teaching vocabulary from learning speed and retention perspective through means of phonetic association. In Turkey, some activities on phonetics and vocabulary, but it was insufficient. So, author thinks there is the connection between English and Turkish in phonetic association. He thinks learners should have images of each English words concerning Turkish words which pronunciation is the same as English.
 In result, students become successful in their test because they can learn vocabulary faster and more retentively. The author suggested that they find associations in their mother tongues that would remind them of the meanings and forms of the words in foreign languages
  
 3.Assesment
  This article may be useful for my research. It shows the connection between learning vocabulary and phonetic association. I did not focus on phonetic association because Japanese  is totally different from English sounds. However, I think to have images of English words is effective. The goal of this article is the method of phonetic association will be extend to the advanced level. In current situation, this methods is useful for beginner or elementary school students.
  
 4. Reflection
  This article mentioned the relation between English and Turkish. There are the same pronunciation words, however in Japanese there is no words like English words. Therefore, I will be able to use the parts of this article. In addition, I have to research there are some papers about phonetic association between English and Japanese and for Japanese students the method to have images of each English words is effective. 

Resources of my research topic

 An Analysis of the Features of Words That Influence Vocabulary Difficulty
Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Scott, Judith A.; Castaneda, Ruben; Spichtig, Alexandra – Education Sciences, 2019
 How Accurately Do English for Academic Purposes Students Use Academic Word List Words?  
McDonough, Kim; Neumann, Heike; Hubert-Smith, Nicolas – BC TEAL Journal, 2018
 Using iPads in Vocabulary Instruction for English Language Learners 
Xin, Joy F.; L. Affrunti, Rachel – Computers in the Schools, 2019
 A Further Examination of Word Frequency and Age-of-Acquisition Effects in English Lexical Decision Task Performance: The Role of Frequency Trajectory 
Juhasz, Barbara J.; Yap, Melvin J.; Raoul, Akila; Kaye, Micaela – Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2019
Altering Methods to Fill the English Curriculum Gap in JapanDownload full text
Zinck, Gerald W. – Online Submission, 2017
 Effect of Phonetic Association on Learning Vocabulary in Foreign Language 
Bozavli, Ebubekir – Journal of Education and Training Studies, 2017
 English Teachers Classroom Assessment Practices 
Saefurrohman; Balinas, Elvira S. – International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, 2016